Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a granulomatous vasculitis of large vessels mostly seen in \npatients over fifty years of age.Altough GCA causes blindness , stroke and myocardial \ninfarction if left untreated, it has not been clearly shown that life expectancy decreases \nwith it , but for sure the quality of life decreases because of long term use and side effects \nof drugs, especially steroids. We tried to discuss the treatment of the disease with other drugs, \n particularly methotrexate to increase the quality of life in patients.
In wireless communication, new radio access technologies are emerging capable of supporting larger coverage area and faster data rates. In a wireless heterogeneous environment consisting of disparate radio access technologies, selection of the best network is an important research issue. In this paper, we propose a novel network selection algorithm for a heterogeneous environment consisting of WiMAX and LTE standard. The proposed algorithm is based on received signal strength, signal to noise ratio, available bit rate, achievable throughput and bit error rate. \nRelative weights of the decision making attributes are optimized employing particle swarm optimization approach. The number of satisfied users calculated as per their demand with wireless network selected by proposed algorithm is optimized by modified PSO and confirmed by Monte Carlo method. From the simulation it is inferred that the number satisfied user while running multimedia applications are improved 50% with respect to the existing network selection algorithms.
This study investigates benthocenoses of two spring areas (reocrenes) in the postglacial zone in
north-west Poland (catchment of River Parsęta – Wielawino and Drzewiany). Those areas differed in
hydrological conditions (outflow efficiency, flow velocity) as well as in the concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrates, sodium and manganese in water. Twelve invertebrate taxa were recorded in Wielawino and Drzewiany spring areas. During the field study, carried out in summer 2010, 552 macrozoobenthos individuals were identified and over 70% of them were found in Wielawino. The population of Gammarus fossarum Koch. 1835 was the most numerous but their abundance differed significantly between the spring areas. Diversity was slightly higher in Wielawino than in Drzewiany.
Relationships between the structure of benthocenoses and environmental conditions (hydrological,
hydrochemical) were determined with canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Variance explained
by the two first axes was relatively high (>60%) and hydrological conditions (mainly outflow
efficiency) turned out to have the strongest influence on the abundance and structure of
Background: Cancer related fatigue is the most common symptoms reported by patients. \nThe nurses’ lack of knowledge and attitudes considered the most important barrier to its \nmanagement. \nObjective: To identify the Jordanian nurses’ knowledge and barriers toward Cancer \nRelated Fatigue (CRF). \nMethod: A descriptive cross sectional design was used to collect data from 81 nurses in an \noncology specialty hospital in Jordan using Fatigue Knowledge and Attitude Survey \nguided by the Piper Fatigue Integrated Model and the City of Hope Quality of Life Model.\nResults: The results identified the nurses\' attitudes and beliefs about CRF in terms of: \nincidence and prevalence, pathophysiology, assessment, management, and patient’s \noutcomes. Half of participants recognized low hemoglobin as a cause of fatigue; 68% \nwere able to differentiate between CRF and depression; 60% believed that fatigue is \nunderreported by patients; 58% appreciated fatigue management; and 65% recognized \nfatigue effects on all aspects of patients’ lives. However, 62% of the participants believed \nthat CRF was not associated with reducing children’ activities. \nConclusion: Jordanian nurses’ knowledge and attitudes toward cancer related fatigue is \nnot sufficient to improve patient’s quality of care. There is a need to improve nurses’ \nknowledge to enhance fatigue management, thus, improving patients’ quality of life.
Background: medication administration error is main component for safety \nhealthcare services. The purpose of this study was to investigative nurses’ \nperception for reason of medication administration error in Saudi Arabia. \nMethods: a cross sectional descriptive survey was conducted to collect \ninformation form 309 nurses in regards to perception of reasons for medication \nadministration errors at one regional hospital in Saudi Arabia. Results: nurses had \nmoderate perception that factors related to communication with physicians \n(M=4.51) and staffing (M= 4.42) are the main reasons for medication \nadministration errors. While, factors related to medication packaging (M=4.03). ) \nand administration processes (M=2.01), and pharmacy processes (M=2.3) had \nbeen perceived with lower levels. The study also found that there is a significant \ndifference between male and female nurses in their perception of physician \ncommunication – related factors (t = - 2.54, p = .01), and difference in perception \nof pharmacy processes factors related to nurses’ years of experience (F = 2.76, p \n= .019). Conclusion: The findings in this study provide evidence that \ncommunication with physicians and staffing are significant factors that contribute \nto medication administration errors at Saudi health care settings.
In this paper, we introduce the weighted variable exponent spaces of diﬀerential forms. After discussing the properties of these spaces, we obtain the existence and uniqueness of weak solution for obstacle problem with variable growth in the setting of these spaces.
Employee retention, the opposite of turnover, has been of importance to both researchers and practitioners. This study intended to answer the following questions (1) how satisfied are the visiting lecturers in University Utara Malaysia (UUM), (2) how committed are they to UUM, (3) do they have intention to leave in the short or the long run, and (4) do job satisfaction and organizational commitment impact intention to leave?. The study implemented a mixed methodology where both quantitative data and qualitative data were collected. Ninety eight (98) questionnaires were distributed and four interviews were conducted. Out of the 98 questionnaires, only 35 were returned and analyzed. The quantitative data results showed that the majority of the visiting lecturers are satisfied (mean=6.2), quite committed (mean=5.7), their intention to stay is also noticeably high (mean5.2), and their intention to leave is quite low (mean3.05). In addition, the qualitative results also showed that the visiting lecturers were satisfied with their job. However, the interviewees showed some concern about the perceived working culture (the absence of integration between local staff and visiting lecturers) and the perceived bureaucracy (time wasted to get things done as the respondents put it). This study could serve as a guide to UUM top management to ensure satisfaction and commitment amount the visiting lecturers in UUM as well as to bridge the gap of perceived working culture and bureaucracy. Thus, intention to leave would accordingly decrease. It is worth mentioning that satisfying foreign lecturers who came from different cultures and who have different expectations could be a point of concern to UUM top management. The results of the study indicated the importance of merging the visiting lecturers into the system so that they feel part of the family of UUM.
In this paper, a new approach for solving fractional order differential equations (FDEs) with
initial value is considered under suitable polynomial spline function. We develop an
unconditionally stable numerical method to solve the linear and nonlinaer fractional
differential equations. The error analysis and stability of the method are theoretically
investigated. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the applicability, accuracy and
stability of the proposed method.