Due to Iran’s special place in the energy sector in the Middle East and the world and also strategic importance of hydrocarbon resources, proper management of this resource in the production to consumption process in the country has an especial importance. Increasing growth of population causes that a majority part of country’s energy is consumed in the domestic sector. To predict demand of electronic energy using statistical methods like regression models, auto-regression and dynamic mean. At the first, the form of functional relation between dependent variable (energy consumption) and independent variables (total population of the city, urban population, rural population, GDP, added value of industry and mine sector, agriculture sector, products’ price, number of consumers and capacity of powerhouses) has to be determined. Determining functional relation between energy consumption and its effective factors is a very complicated issue and it is not easily possible. Therefore, it seems reasonable to use intelligent systems of neural networks which have recently been regarded by many of experts during last years. In this study, multilayer neural networks withBack-propagation learning to predict electrical energy consumption in the household sector of Rei city due to targeted subsidies have been used. To implement the model, MATLAB software was used to predict the rate of demand I the future. To predict electronic energy consumption, a 3 layers neural network completely joined together (an internal layer, a latent layer and an outer layer) was used. Due to the obtained error with different neurons in the latent layer (hidden), eventually one latent layer with 3 neurons in latent layer and one neuron in the external layer in consistent with dependent variable of demand was considered. As the stimulation layer of neurons in the input layer, Sigmoid Function as an excitation function of neurons in the hidden layer f (x) x of outputs and sameness function was used.
Belt slippage on drive drums of belt conveyors is generally considered as an undesirable phenomenon, which has a huge influence on wear of the drive drum lining or its destruction, and reduces the operability of the entire device and should be then completely excluded from belt conveyor operation. Belt slips in the start-up phase can be long- or short-lasting with slight differences in speeds of the belt and drive drum and therefore cannot be registered. So it is necessary to seek options to avoid slips in a controlled start-up of belt conveyor. The paper suggests the effects of conveyor input parameters on the occurrence of those negative slips.
Cognitive psychology is considered one of the main branches for cognitive sciences and one of the important approaches for the environmental psychological sciences that studies relationship between human mental processes and environment. Since human and environment are two factors considered in the environmental studies including urban design, understanding new research methods in the field of cognitive psychology in the process of human recognition and the relationship between human and urban environment is very important. The aim of this paper is to identify and classify the appropriate methods of cognitive approach as a methodology for the environmental studies in the field of urban design. This article has tried to answer two questions within three stages: \"what are the research methods relevant to cognitive psychology approach?\" and \"what is the position of cognitive research methods in the process of urban design?\" First, the significance of cognitive psychology in urban design studies is addressed, then the research methods in cognitive psychology, and finally the adaptability of cognitive methods with the process of the urban design is discussed. Research method is logical reasoning that took advantage of literature review in both fields of cognitive psychology and urban design. The achievement of this paper is to identify variety of cognitive research methods in urban design.
Nowadays, the consumer needs have had dramatic changes and a large part of these changes relate to the technological developments and the technology information. However, organizations and institutions are not in exception from these wide changes and have benefitted more or less from the radical electronic changes. Nowadays, there is rarely anyone who is not familiar with the subject of electronic banking. The ever-growing development of technology, particularly the information technology, has reduced the time and place problems related to the businesses and the public access to the internet has caused possible trade and business through the internet, in other words, the electronic banking and E-Business in the developed countries.\nThe main objective of the present study is the evaluation of the electronic banking barriers in Ansar Bank. The research method is descriptive-analytical by reviewing the literature and the opinions of the barriers experts classified in four parts of risk, software/hardware, cultural, educational, and networking. Then the main obstacles include security, legal and technical barriers were identified and the statistical population includes the experts, administrators, and assistants of the superb branches of Ansar Bank in Tehran. In order to collect data, the paired comparisons have been used in improved hierarchical analysis technique, as the results indicate that the technical barriers introduce the highest weight in the first place and the security barriers and legal barriers are placed afterward.
Background:\nOne of the disorders taking place in nephrotic syndrome would be hyperlipidemia. L-carnitine, which plays a direct role in β-oxidation in addition to phyto-estrogens such as genistein: all being among substances that have the capability to somehow control this specific syndrome by means of bringing about conversion in lipid metabolism. In the present study, we have delved into the effects of Genistein and L-carnitine on the PPAR-α and CPT-1 gene expressions in experimental nephrotic syndrome. \nMethods:\nIn this controlled experimental study, 50 male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups consisting of 10 animals each with similar mean body weights (300±50 g): NC (normal-control), PC (patient-control), LC (L-carnitine), G (genistein), LCG (L-carnitine-genistein). All groups received the AIN 93 M diet during the study (8 weeks) and patients groups were injected with adriamycin at the second week for inducing nephrotic syndrome. The spot urine samples were collected at the end of weeks 2, 3 and 7 and urine protein-to-creatinine ratio was measured. Hepatocytic RNA was extracted and real-time PCR was used for PPAR-α and CPT-1 gene Expression measurement. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 18.0. \nResults:\nAt the end of the study, final weight of the LCG group was considerably higher than the NC group (P=0.04), and weight gain of the NC group was higher than the other groups (P<0.05). The proteinuria and urine protein-to-creatinine ratio were statistically significant between PC group and LC, G and LCG groups at week 7 (P=0.000). The expression of PPAR-α and CPT-1 mRNA were statistically insignificant between the LC,G and LCG groups and the PC group but ΔCT of these genes showed significant differences between the LC,G and LCG groups and the PC group (P<0.001).\nConclusion:\nOur study shows an increasing trend in PPAR-α and CPT-1 gene expressions and synergistic effect of L-carnitine and genistein in experimental nephrotic syndrome.
Due to the fall of communism, the wine industry has suffered major changes in the South Eastern and Eastern part of Europe due to the transition from a state-owned economy to a “free economy” which has granted the success of so many countries in the Western part of Europe after the Second World War. This paper reveals the case of Romania, one of the largest producers in the South Eastern Europe which has taken serious reforms in land and proprietorship after the fall of the \"iron curtain\". It has taken serious steps in providing in all sectors, including all the branches of economy, that element of modernity which has provided to Romania a place among the other member states of the European Union.
Change detection basically consists of analyzing two remote sensing images which are co-registered and taken at different times over the geographical area. This paper focus on the change detection for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images based on image fusion and a fuzzy clustering algorithm .The image fusion technique produces a difference image which is obtained by using the complementary information from the mean ratio image and log ratio image and then applying contourlet transform. Contourlet transform usually has a Laplacian pyramid as well as a directional filter bank .With the help of Laplacian pyramid multiscale decomposition takes place .Directional filter bank is used to attain directional information. After fusing the classification of changed and unchanged regions are based on fuzzy-local information C-means clustering algorithm .This method outperforms existing change detection techniques.